Manji A. Shetshak, Isa D. Jatau, Muhammed M. Suleiman, Matthew P. Ameh*, Ada Gabriel and Isaac O. Akefe* Pages 76 - 84 ( 9 )
Background: Commercial poultry farming is expanding every day and contributing to the provision of affordable and high-quality protein. However, this sector is confronted with many diseases of which coccidiosis is among the most important. There are many registered patents affirming the health benefits of Garcinia kola in poultry.Objective: Evaluation of in vitro anticoccidial activities of the extracts and fractions of Garcinia kola against Eimeria tenella oocyst was carried out. Methods: Fresh seeds of G. kola were collected, dried under shade at room temperature, and pulverized using a mortar and a pestle. The powder was exhaustively extracted with a soxhlet apparatus using 70% methanol, and the crude methanol extract (CME) was concentrated to dryness using a rotary evaporator. The CME was further partitioned using butanol, ethylacetate, and n-hexane. The CME, butanol fraction (BTF), ethylacetate fraction (EAF), and hexane fraction (HXF) were concentrated in vacuo and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents using standard procedures. Similarly, the CME, butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane fractions were evaluated in vitro for oocyst sporulation inhibition. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in the CME and BTF. The EAF contains all the metabolites mentioned except saponins. Similarly, HXF contains only cardiac glycosides, tannins, and steroids/ triterpenes. The CME and BTF caused a concentration-dependent increase in the inhibition of sporulation of unsporulated oocysts of E. tenella. In the acute toxicity studies, the CME did not produce any toxic effect or mortality at doses between 10 and 5000 mg/kg. The CME was then considered safe, and the LD50 was assumed to be >5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggested that the crude methanol extract (CME) of G. kola could be an appreciable beneficial effect as an anticoccidial agent against Eimeria tenella oocyst.
Coccidiosis, Eimeria tenella, Garcinia kola, oocyst, in vitro, extract.
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane