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In Vivo Treatment Efficacy of Essential Oil Isolated from Seeds of Momordica charantia in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s):

Berlin Grace V. M. *, David Wilson D, Jerrin R, Viswanathan S, Siddikuzzaman and Gopal R.  

Abstract:


Background: All parts of Momordica charantia L have potential hypoglycemic property in reversing the metabolic disorder of diabetes mellitus. But there exists a need for preparing an effective and safer formulation of active phytochemical. We have also reviewed certain patents on such preparatory methods for Momordica charantia L and analysis.

Objective: The objectives were isolation of the essential oil from the seeds of Momordica charantia L, analysis of its phytochemicals and study of their anti-diabetic effects.

Methods: The essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation method, analyzed for phytochemicals by GC-MS and tested its acute toxicity in rats. Anti-diabetic effects were evaluated in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats with 17.5 and 55 mg/kg b.wt of essential oil by evaluating blood glucose, serum lipid profile, liver glycogen, protein and other serum markers such as ALT, AST, ALP, urea and creatinine. The histologic changes in the liver, pancreas and kidney were evaluated using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining.

Results: The phytochemicals, having hypoglycaemic and insulin induction potency were identified in the GC-MS analysis. A highly significant (p≤0.01; p≤0.001) reduction in blood glucose was resulted for 17.5 mg/kg and 55 mg/kg essential oil treatments respectively. The diabetes associated metabolic alterations (p≤0.001) observed in diabetic control rats such as lipid profile, enzymes, glycogen, protein, urea and creatinine were normalized upon treatment with essential oil. The histologic changes in vital organs reversed in treated rats.

Conclusion: The essential oil of Momordica charantia L. seed has promising potency to normalize the metabolic changes of type II diabetes mellitus.

Keywords:

Momordica charantia L, Cucurbitaceae, GC-MS, Essential oil, Diabetes mellitus, Streptozotocin, Phytochemicals

Affiliation:

Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu, School of Science, Arts, Media and Management (SSAMM), Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu, Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu, International Institute of Innovation & Technology (IIIT), Action Area 1D, Newtown, Kolkata, West Bengal-700156, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu



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