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Detoxifying Action of Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seed and Mimosa pudica Root Against Venoms of Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Matthew P. Ameh, Mamman Mohammed, Yusuf P. Ofemile, Magaji G. Mohammed, Ada Gabriel and Akefe O. Isaac*   Pages 134 - 144 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: The World Health Organization included snakebite envenomation among Neglected Tropical Diseases in 2017. The importance of natural products from plants is enormous, given that most prescribed drugs originate from plants. Among this is Mucuna pruriens and Mimosa pudica, with many registered patents asserting their health benefits.

Objective: This study investigated the in vitro neutralizing effects of Mucuna pruriens seed and Mimosa pudica root extracts on venoms of Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans.

Methods: In mice, the LD50 and phytochemical analysis of M. pruriens and M. pudica plant extracts were carried out prior to the evaluation of their haemolytic and fibrinolytic effect. Their effects on the activities of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were also assessed.

Results: At a concentration of 50 mg/ml, both plant extracts were found to neutralize the fibrinolytic activity of N. nigricollis, but 400 mg/ml was required to neutralize the fibrinolytic activity of B. arietans. In haemolytic studies, 50 mg/ml concentration of M. pruriens extract suppressed haemolysis caused by N. nigricollis venom by 70% but at the same concentration, M. pudica extract reduced haemolysis by 49.4%. M. pruriens, at 50 mg/ml concentration, only inhibited phospholipase A2 activity by 7.7% but higher concentrations up to 400mg/ml had no effect against the venom of N. nigricollis; at 200 mg/ml. M. pudica extract inhibited PLA2 activity by 23%.

Conclusion: The results suggest that M. pruriens and M. pudica may be considered as promising antivenom agents for people living in a snake-bite prone environment.

Keywords:

Snakes, in vitro, Mucuna pruriens, Mimosa pudica, venom, Naja nigricollis, Bitis arietans, antivenom.

Affiliation:

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane

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