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Biochemical Implications of Biotransformation of Some Toxic Floras Using Natural Local Enzyme Sources

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 1 ]


Emmanuel N. Agomuo and Peter U. Amadi*   Pages 16 - 32 ( 17 )


Background: Recently, it has been established that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is a potent technique for the detoxification of harmful plant materials.

Objective: Following encouraging simultaneous medicinal applications of snail slime and yeast, we exploited their hydrolytic and fermentation potentials to prevent toxicities of the selected floras; Erythrodontium barteri (EB), bracken fern (BF), and crustose lichens (CL). The applicability of the saccharification process has been described in a patent (WO2005010193A2).

Methods: The plants were bioprocessed using snail digestive juice and yeast slurry and their health effects were evaluated. Seventy rats were divided equally into groups, treated with single doses of aqueous extracts of the plants and their bioprocessed forms, and compared with control rats.

Results: The plants showed very high antinutrients levels, which significantly reduced after SSF with enhanced flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols. Potential alterations of WBC differentials, RBC, liver and renal function markers indices were mitigated by bioprocessed extracts. MDA, SOD, GRase, XO and XDH levels in rats administered the bEB and CL were equivalent to the levels found for the control rats. Some bioprocessed plants produced unaltered insulin, ghrelin, and leptin levels. The bioprocessed extracts, when compared to the effects of unprocessed extracts, produced lower TNF-α, Caspase-3, and adiponectin levels and mitigated the potential suppression of Na+/K+-ATPase levels. Potential depletion of inhibin-B, testosterone, estrogen, and prolactin was mitigated after bioprocessing.

Conclusion: This study, thus, validates the application of bioprocessing using snail digestive juice and yeast as an effective approach to reduce the potential toxicities of harmful plants.


Biotransformation, organ toxicity, fermentation, hormones, Na+/K+-ATPase, enzyme.


Department of Biochemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State

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