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The Metabolic Syndrome and the Relevance of Nutrients for its Onset

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 2 ]


Lauren L. Schnack and Andrea M.P. Romani   Pages 101 - 119 ( 19 )


Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by the copresence of various dysmetabolic and pathological processes including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular complications. Because these conditions manifest themselves differently in a given patient, the ensuing pathophysiological state varies from patient to patient. Consequently, the order in which signs and symptoms manifest themselves can vary, making difficult to establish cause-effect relationship, and efficacious treatment and prevention options. Furthermore, the available therapeutic options do not necessarily apply in an effective manner to all patients due to the modality of the syndrome’s onset and progression, and the fact that each patient presents different clinical manifestations.

Results: Where do the metabolic disturbances originate? Genetic predisposition, maternal health, age, and ethnicity are possible influential factors, which put individuals at higher risk for developing metabolic defects. More recently, dietary factors and deficiency in key macro- and micro-nutrients have been indicated as key players in the onset and progression of the disease. We revised all possible patents applying to this topic. Aside from pharmacological agents used to treat specific medical conditions, no patents were observed to be registered for specific dietary macro- and micro-nutrients.

Conclusion: The present review attempts to provide a framework to help the reader understand the causes behind the development of the metabolic syndrome and its complication.


Metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dietary protein deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, magnesium deficiency.


Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH-44106-4970, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH-44106-4970

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